Cereal Chem 67:575-580 | VIEW
The Dynamics of Cake Baking as Studied by a Combination of Viscometry and Electrical Resistance Oven Heating.
K. Shelke, J. M. Faubion, and R. C. Hoseney. Copyright 1990 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.
A combination of resistance oven heating and continuous oscillatory rod viscometry was used to monitor changes in cake batter viscosity during baking. This procedure measured the viscosity without degrading the batter by shear-thinning. Batter viscosity versus temperature plots illustrated a decrease in viscosity early in heating and a subsequent rapid increase, which was determined to be due to starch gelatinization. Major formula ingredients affected batter viscosity during the course of heating but in different ways. Sugar type and concentration affected the onset temperature of starch gelatinization and thereby the rapid viscosity increase; sucrose was more effective than glucose and fructose. Shortening increased the viscosity at ambient temperature and decreased the rate of rapid viscosity increase but did not affect onset temperature. Egg white increased the viscosity of batter at ambient temperature and during heating. Fresh egg white produced higher minimum viscosities of heated batters and better cake volumes than dried egg white. The primary effect of hydrocolloids was maintenance of higher minimum viscosities of batters during heating but before starch gelatinization. Emulsifiers increased single-stage batter viscosity at ambient temperature and during heating.