Cereal Chem 56:11 - 14. | VIEW
Functionality in White Layer Cake of Lipids from Untreated and Chlorinated Patent Flours. I. Effects of Free Lipids.
L. T. Kissell, J. R. Donelson, and R. L. Clements. Copyright 1979 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.
Commercial unchlorinated soft red winter patent flour (pH 5.8) was treated to pH 5.2 (low), pH 4.8 (intermediate), and pH 4.0 (high) levels using 560, 1,120, and 2,240 ppm of chlorine gas, respectively. Hexane-extractable (free) lipids were removed by exhaustive refluxing with the solvent. Baking performances of the hexane-extracted (defatted) flours were poor and about equal, regardless of chlorine treatment. When lipids were returned to the respective extracted flours, the original baking quality of the chlorinated flours was restored. Cake volume increased with increasing chlorination to a miximum at pH 4.8, then decreased at pH 4.0. When lipids from pH 4.0 (highly chlorinated) flour were added to the defatted flours of low and intermediate chlorine treatment, baking performance was inferior to the responses with their own lipid extracts. Addition of lipids from untreated, low, and intermediate chlorination rate sources improved baking function of the highly chlorinated flour residue. In a parallel test in which the same chlorine treatments were applied to hexane-extracted unchlorinated flour, a similar set of responses was obtained, but the combination of variables yielding acceptable performance was restricted to low and intermediate chlorine rates. The improtance of the presence of free lipids in situ at the time of chlorination was confirmed.