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Cereal Chem 44:576 - 583.  |  VIEW ARTICLE
Studies of the Carbonyl Compounds Produced by Sugar-Amino Acid Reactions. II. In Bread Systems.

A. Salem, L. W. Rooney, and J. A. Johnson. Copyright 1967 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

The effect of reactions between amino acids and glucose or xylose on production of carbonyl compounds, color, and aroma in bread was studied. The carbonyl compounds were isolated from both the crust and crumb. The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives were prepared and quantitatively determined. Furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural were determined with specific color reactions. Reaction of amino acids and sugar increased the color intensity of bread crust. Xylose produced a darker crust color than glucose. The bread crust color was influenced by the kind of amino acid when the amino acids were reacted with the same sugar. The amount of carbonyl compounds increased in the bread crust when amino acids were added. However, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural content decreased slightly. The carbonyl content in the bread crumb did not increase. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, isobutyraldehyde, isovaleraldehyde, 2-methylbutanal, phenylacetaldehyde, and methional were produced mainly from glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and methionine, respectively. The other amino acids produced no predominant aldehyde, presumably because of reactivity of the Strecker degradation products. Type of sugar had no effect on the kind of carbonyl compounds formed. Since various amino acids produced different aldehydes, aroma of the bread changed accordingly.

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