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Cereal Chem 39:468 - 476.  |  VIEW ARTICLE

The Origin and Fate of Certain Carbonyl Compounds in White Bread.

Y.-Y. Linko, J. A. Johnson, and B. S. Miller. Copyright 1962 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

The effects of baking techniques and storage conditions on development and retention of carbonyl compounds in bread were investigated. The "total" carbonyl content varied with baking techniques and length of storage. Acetone and hydroxymethyl furfural were the major components. Several others were present in minor quantities. With increasing increments of sucrose in the formula, furfural increased slightly and hydroxymethyl furfural increased greatly in the crust but not in the crumb. The "total" carbonyl content of crust increased as the crust color became darker. Adding leucine and xylose to dough increased the iso- valeraldehyde in the crust, whereas iso-valeraldehyde added to dough was largely lost during fermentation and baking. The formation of certain carbonyl compounds in crust would appear to originate mainly from the reaction of certain amino acids with carbohydrates during baking. In both wrapped and unwrapped bread little decrease occurred in the "total" carbonyl content of crust up to 5 days of storage; thereafter, a rapid decline occurred in the unwrapped bread. In the crumb, "total" carbonyl compounds first increased up to 3 days of storage, then declined rapidly.

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