02 Features
Cereal Foods World, Vol. 63, No. 4
Print To PDF
From Underutilized Side-Streams to Hybrid Food Ingredients for Health
M. Nikinmaa, E. Nordlund, K. Poutanen, and N. Sozer

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Espoo, Finland1
1 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Tietotie 2, Espoo, FI-02044 VTT, Finland.


Abstract

Growing global populations and limited resources require more sustainable use of food crops. Lifestyle-related health problems, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, are also an increasing problem in many parts of the world. Major agricultural side-streams, such as cereal bran, oil-press residues and pomace, are currently used predominantly for feed and fuel. However, they have the potential to be sustainable sources of healthy proteins, fibers, and bioactive compounds for human consumption if challenges related to flavor and texture are overcome. Novel processing methods are needed to create healthy and palatable ingredients from agricultural side-streams. From economic and sustainability perspectives, these methods must be energy and water efficient. Dry-milling and dry-fractionation are energy-lean methods that can be used to produce value-added hybrid ingredients from side-streams. These ingredients may be processed further using bioprocessing, thermomechanical processing, or other methods to improve their applicability in food products.





Trying to reach content?

View Full Article

if you don't have access, become a member

References

  1. Aktas-Akyildiz, E., Mattila, O., Sozer, N., Poutanen, K., Koksel, H., and Nordlund, E. Effect of steam explosion on enzymatic hydrolysis and baking quality of wheat bran. J. Cereal Sci. 78:25, 2017.
  2. Alam, S. A., Järvinen, J., Kirjoranta, S., Jouppila, K., Poutanen, K., and Sozer, N. Influence of particle size reduction on structural and mechanical properties of extruded rye bran. Food Bioprocess Technol. 7:2121, 2014.
  3. Balasundram, N., Sundrarm, K., and Samman, S. Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial by-products: Antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. Food Chem. 99:191, 2006.
  4. Belitz, H.-D., Grosch, W., and Schieberle, P. Food Chemistry. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2009.
  5. Bouvard, V., Loomis, D., Guyton, K. Z., Grosse, Y., Ghissassi, F. E., et al. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat. Lancet Oncol. 16:1599, 2015.
  6. Bruinsma, J., ed. World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030. An FAO Perspective. Available online at www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4252e/y4252e00.htm. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2003.
  7. Buchert, J., Ercili Cura, D., Ma, H., Gasparetti, C., Monogioudi, E., et al. Crosslinking food proteins for improved functionality. Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 1:113, 2010.
  8. Chanson-Rolle, A., Meynier, A., Aubin, F., Lappi, J., Poutanen, K., Vinoy, S., and Braesco, V. Systematic review and meta-analysis of human studies to support a quantitative recommendation for whole grain intake in relation to type 2 diabetes. PLoS One. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131377. 2015.
  9. Cheryan, M., and Rackis, J. J. Phytic acid interactions in food systems. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 13:297, 1980.
  10. Cho, S. S., and Samuel, P., eds. Fiber Ingredients: Food Applications and Health Benefits. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2009.
  11. Coda, R., Rizzello, C. G., Curiel, J. A., Poutanen, K., and Katina, K. Effect of bioprocessing and particle size on the nutritional properties of wheat bran fractions. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 25:19, 2014.
  12. Duthie, S. J. Berry phytochemicals, genomic stability and cancer: Evidence for chemoprotection at several stages in the carcinogenic process. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 51:665, 2007.
  13. Elangovan, A., and Shim, K. F. The influence of replacing fish meal partially in the diet with soybean meal on growth and body composition of juvenile tin foil barb (Barbodes altus). Aquaculture 189:133, 2000.
  14. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAOSTAT database. Available online at http://www.fao.org/faostat/en. FAO, Rome, 2018.
  15. García-Estepa, R. M., Guerra-Hernández, E., and García-Villanova, B. Phytic acid content in milled cereal products and breads. Food Res. Int. 32:217, 1999.
  16. Gerland, P., Raftery, A. E., Ševčíková, H., Li, N., Gu, D., et al. World population stabilization unlikely this century. 346(6206):234, 2014.
  17. Grzelak-Błaszczyk, K., Karlińska, E., Grzęda, K., Rój, E., and Kołodziejczyk, K. Defatted strawberry seeds as a source of phenolics, dietary fiber and minerals. LWT 84:18, 2017.
  18. Heiniö, R. L., Noort, M. W. J., Katina, K., Alam, S. A., Sozer, N., de Kock, H. L., Hersleth, M., and Poutanen, K. Sensory characteristics of wholegrain and bran-rich cereal foods—A review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 47:25, 2016.
  19. Hemery, Y., Holopainen, U., Lampi, A.-M., Lehtinen, P., Nurmi, T., Piironen, V., Edelmann, M., and Rouau, X. Potential of dry fractionation of wheat bran for the development of food ingredients, part II: Electrostatic separation of particles. J. Cereal Sci. 53:9, 2011.
  20. Höglund, E., Eliasson, L., Oliveira, G., Almli, V. L., Sozer, N., and Alminger, M. Effect of drying and extrusion processing on physical and nutritional characteristics of bilberry press cake extrudates. LWT 92:422, 2018.
  21. Jiang, Z., Sontag-Strohm, T., Salovaara, H., Sibakov, J., Kanerva, P., and Loponen, J. Oat protein solubility and emulsion properties improved by enzymatic deamidation. J. Cereal Sci. 64:126, 2015.
  22. Jin, Z., Hsieh, F., and Huff, H. E. Effects of soy fiber, salt, sugar and screw speed on physical properties and microstructure of corn meal extrudate. J. Cereal Sci. 22:185, 1995.
  23. Katina, K., Laitila, A., Juvonen, R., Liukkonen, K.-H., Kariluoto, S., Piironen, V., Landberg, R., Aman, P., and Poutanen, K. Bran fermentation as a means to enhance technological properties and bioactivity of rye. Food Microbiol. 24:175, 2007.
  24. Lappi, J., Aura, A.-M., Katina, K., Nordlund, E., Kolehmainen, M., Mykkänen, H., and Poutanen, K. Comparison of postprandial phenolic acid excretions and glucose responses after ingestion of breads with bioprocessed or native rye bran. Food Funct. 4:972, 2013.
  25. Marlett, J. A., McBurney, M. I., Slavin, J. L., and American Dietetic Association. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Health implications of dietary fiber. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 102:993, 2002.
  26. Merit, B., Tekin, A., Demirkesen, I., and Kocak, G. Production of microfluidized wheat bran fibers and evaluation as an ingredient in reduced flour bakery product. Food Bioprocess Technol. 7:2889, 2014.
  27. Miller, N., Pretorius, H. E., and du Toit, L. J. Phytic acid in sunflower seeds, pressed cake and protein concentrate. Food Chem. 21:205, 1986.
  28. Murphy, N., Norat, T., Ferrari, P., Jenab, M., Bueno-de-Mesquita, B., et al. Dietary fibre intake and risks of cancers of the colon and rectum in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). PLoS One. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039361. 2012.
  29. Niemi, P., Martins, D., Buchert, J., and Faulds, C. B. Pre-hydrolysis with carbohydrases facilitates the release of protein from brewer’s spent grain. Bioresour. Technol. 136:529, 2013.
  30. Nikinmaa, M., Alam, S. A., Raulio, M., Katina, K., Kajala, I., Nordlund, E., and Sozer, N. Bioprocessing of bran with exopolysaccharide producing microorganisms as a tool to improve expansion and textural properties of extruded cereal foams with high dietary fibre content. LWT 77:170, 2017.
  31. Nivala, O., Mäkinen, O. E., Kruus, K., Nordlund, E., and Ercili-Cura, D. Structuring colloidal oat and faba bean protein particles via enzymatic modification. Food Chem. 231:87, 2017.
  32. Nohynek, L. J., Alakomi, H.-L., Kähkönen, M. P., Heinonen, M., Helander, I. M., Oksman-Caldentey, K.-M., and Puupponen-Pimiä, R. H. Berry phenolics: Antimicrobial properties and mechanisms of action against severe human pathogens. Nutr. Cancer 54:18, 2006.
  33. Nordlund, E., Katina, K., Aura, A. M., and Poutanen, K. Changes in bran structure by bioprocessing with enzymes and yeast modifies the in vitro digestibility and fermentability of bran protein and dietary fibre complex. J. Cereal Sci. 58:200, 2013.
  34. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Crop production. Available online at https://data.oecd.org/agroutput/crop-production.htm. OECD, Paris, 2018.
  35. Partanen, R., Sibakov, J., Rommi, K., Hakala, T., Holopainen-Mantila, U., Lahtinen, P., Ercili-Cura, D., and Lantto, R. Dispersion stability of non-refined turnip rapeseed (Brassica rapa) protein concentrate: Impact of thermal, mechanical and enzymatic treatments. Food Bioprod. Process. 99:29, 2016.
  36. Perussello, C. A., Zhang, Z., Marzocchella, A., and Tiwari, B. K. Valorization of apple pomace by extraction of valuable compounds. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Safety 16:776, 2017.
  37. Puupponen-Pimiä, R., Nohynek, L., Ammann, S., Oksman-Caldentey, K.-M., and Buchert, J. Enzyme-assisted processing increases antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of bilberry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56:681, 2008.
  38. Puupponen-Pimiä, R., Nohynek, L., Juvonen, R., Kössö, T., Truchado, P., Westerlund-Wikström, B., Leppänen, T., Moilanen, E., and Oksman-Caldentey, K.-M. Fermentation and dry fractionation increase bioactivity of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus). Food Chem. 197:950, 2016.
  39. Quiles, A., Campbell, G. M., Struck, S., Rohm, H., and Hernando, I. Fiber from fruit pomace: A review of applications in cereal-based products. Food Rev. Int. 34:162, 2018.
  40. Reisinger, M., Tirpanalan, Ö., Huber, F., Kneifel, W., and Novalin, S. Investigations on a wheat bran biorefinery involving organosolv fractionation and enzymatic treatment. Bioresour. Technol. 170:53, 2014.
  41. Rivera, D., Rommi, K., Fernandes, M. M., Lantto, R., and Tzanov, T. Biocompounds from rapeseed oil industry co-stream as active ingredients for skin care applications. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 37:496, 2015.
  42. Robin, F., Dattinger, S., Boire, A., Forny, L., Horvat, M., Schuchmann, H. P., and Palzer, S. Elastic properties of extruded starchy melts containing wheat bran using on-line rheology and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. J. Food Eng. 109:414, 2012.
  43. Rommi, K., Holopainen, U., Pohjola, S., Hakala, T. K., Lantto, R., Poutanen, K., and Nordlund, E. Impact of particle size reduction and carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzyme treatment on protein recovery from rapeseed (Brassica rapa L.) press cake. Food Bioprocess Technol. 8:2392, 2015.
  44. Rosa-Sibakov, N., Sibakov, J., Lahtinen, P., and Poutanen, K. Wet grinding and microfluidization of wheat bran preparations: Improvement of dispersion stability by structural disintegration. J. Cereal Sci. 64:1, 2015.
  45. Sabaté, J., and Soret, S. Sustainability of plant-based diets: Back to the future. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 100:476S, 2014.
  46. Santala, O., Kiran, A., Sozer, N., Poutanen, K., and Nordlund, E. Enzymatic modification and particle size reduction of wheat bran improves the mechanical properties and structure of bran-enriched expanded extrudates. J. Cereal Sci. 60:448, 2014.
  47. Schutyser, M. A. I., and van der Goot, A. J. The potential of dry fractionation processes for sustainable plant protein production. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 22:154, 2011.
  48. Shamsuddin, A. M. Anti-cancer function of phytic acid. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 37:769, 2002.
  49. Sozer, N., Cicerelli, L., Heiniö, R.-L., and Poutanen, K. Effect of wheat bran addition on in vitro starch digestibility, physico-mechanical and sensory properties of biscuits. J. Cereal Sci. 60:105, 2014.
  50. Villamide, M. J., and San Juan, L. D. Effect of chemical composition of sunflower seed meal on its true metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility. Poult. Sci. 77:1884, 1998.
  51. Wang, N., Hou, G. G., Kweon, M., and Lee, B. Effects of particle size on the properties of whole-grain soft wheat flour and its cracker baking performance. J. Cereal Sci. 69:187, 2016.
  52. Yanniotis, S., Petraki, A., and Soumpasi, E. Effect of pectin and wheat fibers on quality attributes of extruded cornstarch. J. Food Eng. 80:594, 2007.
  53. Zhou, K., Su, L., and Yu, L. Phytochemicals and antioxidant properties in wheat bran. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52:6108, 2004.