Increasing Dietary Fiber in Foods: The Case for Phosphorylated Cross-Linked Resistant Starch, a Highly Concentrated Form of Dietary Fiber
K. S. Woo (1), C. C. Maningat (1), and P. A. Seib (2). (1) MGP Ingredients, Inc., Atchison, KS, U.S.A. (2) Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, U.S.A. Cereal Foods World 54(5):217-223.
In the last 25 years obesity has increased dramatically in the United States. According to a 2007 National Health Interview Survey on Body Mass Index, more than one-third of U.S. adults aged 20 and over, or 72 million people, are obese with an equal percentage among men and women. Obesity is of global concern as well; currently, more than 15% of adults and 10% of children in the world are estimated to be overweight or obese. The increasing rates of excessive weight and obesity raise serious concerns for human health. Obesity has been related to the risk of many diseases, including coronary heart disease, hypertension, respiratory complications, osteoarthritis, and especially type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes leads to serious health problems including heart disease, blindness, nerve damage, and kidney failure. According to the American Diabetes Association, currently 23.6 million children and adults in the United States, or 7.8% of the population, have diabetes and of those, about 90% have type 2 diabetes. The twin epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes are caused by excessive energy intake from calorie-dense foods and by decreased energy expenditure from a sedentary lifestyle. There is a rising and urgent need to develop foods with reduced energy density, and for adults and children to increase their physical activity.