DOI: 10.1094/CFW-51-0274 |
Color Influences Consumer Opinions of Wheat Muffins
M. E. Camire, J. Bolton, J. J. Jordan, S. Kelley, A. Oberholtzer, X. Qiu, and M. Dougherty. Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Maine, 5735 Hitchner Hall, Orono, ME 04469-5735. Cereal Foods World 51(5):274-276.
Increased availability of white whole wheat has raised questions about consumer acceptance of products made with light-colored flour. Four types of miniature muffins were baked, each using traditional (red) whole wheat, white whole wheat, all-purpose, and caramel-colored all-purpose flours. Sixty-six volunteers evaluated the muffins for acceptability of color, appearance, flavor, texture, and overall quality using a 9-point hedonic scale and rated the healthiness of the products using a 10-point scale. The volunteers were then provided with information about the type of flour used in each sample and each type of muffin was rerated for overall acceptability and healthiness. No differences were found in acceptability of any attribute among muffin types. Healthy ratings were significantly different, with red whole wheat muffins having the highest rating, followed by white whole wheat, colored all-purpose, and all-purpose flour muffins. Overall acceptability decreased significantly for the all-purpose flour muffins after revelation of their content. Healthy ratings for white whole wheat increased the most after provision of the content information, while ratings decreased for muffins made with all-purpose flours. Improved nutrition education programs may be needed to inform consumers about selection of whole grain products.