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Cereal Chem 49:522 - 531.  |  VIEW ARTICLE
The Production of High-Protein Breads Under Reduced Atmospheric Pressures.

K. Lorenz and J. Maga. Copyright 1972 by the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. 

The production of high-protein breads under reduced atmospheric pressures eliminates the detrimental effects to bread quality of high levels of defatted soy flour, cottonseed flour, peanut flour, and fish protein concentrate without using chemical additives. Bread volumes increased with decreasing atmospheric processing conditions. The volume of breads supplemented with 15% of any of the forementioned protein additives and processed at 525 mm. Hg (10,000-ft. elevation) was as high as or higher than that of the control bread without protein additives processed at 765 mm. Hg (sea level). Bread grain, texture, crumb color, and flavor improved with decreasing atmospheric processing conditions. Due to the improvement in bread volume, the grain was less compact, the texture smoother, and the crumb color lighter. Baking at reduced atmospheric conditions caused partial loss of many objectionable flavor components of the supplements, resulting in a more pleasant aroma and flavor. High-protein additives were detectable and identifiable by a taste panel at the 15% level of supplementation in breads baked at 765 mm. Hg, but not when baked at 525 mm. Hg. This same trend was verified by gas-liquid chromatographic analysis. Bread fermentation and proofing times become increasingly shorter with decreasing atmospheric pressures.

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